Networking is sharing data to a well connected set of computers. Adhoc and sensor networks are promising area of networking to do projects in networking field. They use mobility nodes to make the communication more flexible. Most famous Adhoc networks are MANET and VANET projects in networking. Due to its battery level and routing mechanism wireless sensor network is also gaining popularity in its own way.

Wireless Adhoc network:

When wireless network is decentralized it forms wireless Adhoc network. Because of node participation Adhoc network don’t have routers, forward data packets or predefined infrastructure. It can act as router and forward data packets using flood functioning.

Features of Adhoc Network:

  • Communicates within a radio range.
  • All nodes in a network have same functionality.
  • Each node ca as both host and router.
  • Provides large level of user mobility.
  • Require minimum human process to configure network.

Types of Adhoc networks:

  • Wireless sensor Network.
  • Mobile Adhoc network.
  • Wireless mesh network.

Wireless sensor Network:

Environmental changes are identified by this network using distributed sensors. It is usually used to develop applications for military and battle field purposes application.

  • Machine control analysis.
  • Health monitoring.
  • Area monitoring.
  • Industrial Process monitoring.

Mobile Adhoc Network:

Only self organized infrastructure contain mobile nodes hence mobile adhoc network. Nodes in MANET can move freely and connected by wireless link. The energy and traffic in MANET are always high. They are operated on their own.

Types of MANET:

  • Internet based Mobile adhoc networks (iMANET).
  • Intelligent vehicular adhoc Networks (In VANET).
  • Vehicular Adhoc Networks (VANET).

Application of MANET:

  • Battlefield environment.
  • Bluetooth connectivity.
  • Personal Area Network.
  • Challenges of MANET:
  • Routing stability.
  • Low packet delivery.
  • Link failure.
  • Energy level of network.
  • Security issues.
  • Network Lifetime.

Wireless Mesh Network:

It is a communication network with nodes that is established using meshing topology. It has routers, gateway nodes and clients.


  • Satellite phones to make calls.
  • For file sharing and internet connection.
  • High speed mobile applications.
  • Military forces use it to connect laptops and computer in field work.

Future Advancement:

Projects in networking aims to sink relocation can be done in sensor network to improve its lifetime. Ant colony and Bee colony optimization method is used in sensor routing.