Ad Hoc Network Projects for Research Scholars.

Ad hoc network are formed by various protocols. Ad hoc projects lay out the new protocols design to enable proper communication wireless nodes. A group of wireless nodes with mobility and dynamically temporary network with various topologies could be formed is Ad hoc network. Ad hoc network is a wireless network, in which each node communicates individually without need of any base station or routers. In this network each mobile host act as router for communication. Depends upon their application ad hoc network can be further classified as MANET, VANET, SPANs, iMANETs. Application of ad hoc network projects are multimedia conferencing, video streaming, environmental monitoring, network storage, file transfer, transmission of HDTV signals, transmissions of multiple audio signals and online gaming. Mobile host communication use Ad Hoc networks as it is new wireless networking structure. A fixed environment is not required by Ad Hoc. The simulation characteristics attract the students to carry out Ad Hoc network projects. Ad Hoc network projects are simulated by NS2. Ad Hoc network projects are carried out by researchers as it has gained wide popularization.

Types of Ad Hoc Network.

Ad Hoc network is multi hop relaying that is the main principle where messages are sent from source to destination by intermediate hops. The first commercial realization of Ad Hoc wireless networking is Bluetooth standard which was developed by Bluetooth special interest group.

A wireless protocol was developed by IEEE 802.11 protocols but do not work out much in multi hop networks.

Ad Hoc network types:

  • Wireless mesh network.
  • Mobile Ad Hoc network.
  • Wireless sensor network.

Wireless mesh network:

Upon wireless communication, wireless mesh network is built and continuous connections & configuration is allowed in mesh network. Multiple nodes cooperate in wireless mesh network to relay a message to host node. Overall reliability of network could be improved. Investment cost is less in wireless mesh network. 2.4 GHz or 5 GHz can be operated.

Mesh network possible applications:

  • Business zone.
  • University campuses.
  • Residential zone.
  • Important civilian regions.

Wireless mesh network advantages:

  • High availability.
  • Enhanced services.
  • High data rates.
  • Low cost & quick deployment.
  • High scalability.
  • Low cost per bit.

Wireless sensor networks:

A special type of Ad hoc networks is wireless sensor networks provide wireless communication infrastructure among sensors. A group of large number of sensor nodes is known as sensor network and it is deployed in a specified region.

Applications of wireless Ad hoc networks:

Distributed computing:

In Ad hoc networks a group of data in conference share data. Audio or video based may be the conference.

Military applications:

In battlefield environment communication could be established by Ad hoc network.

Emergency operations:

Search and rescue control could be performed. It is useful in disaster environments.

Hybrid wireless networks:

Transmission among base station or multihop of nodes are allowed in hybrid wireless networks conventional cellular technology with Ad Hoc relay station are combined in a integrated cellular Ad Hoc network.

Major benefits of hybrid network.

  • High capacity when compared to cellular network.
  • Better connectivity & coverage.
  • Flexible and reliable routing is provided in hybrid network.

Ad Hoc network properties:

  • Dynamic topology.
  • Low computing power.
  • Limited bandwidth.
  • Low power.
  • Temporary network.
  • High mobility.

Medium access of Ad Hoc network issues:

For routing and data transmission, distributed operation is needed for media access control in wireless Ad Hoc network. Synchronization process in mobile nodes is carried out by time division multiple access scheme. Hidden terminal functionality is possessed by most of the nodes. Real time traffic support for video, voice and real time data transfer is supported by MAC protocol. Directional antennas are used in MAC to increase, spectrum availability to reduce power consumption and interference.

Routing issues: Two types of routing are there in Ad Hoc network

  • Multicast routing.
  • Unicast routing.

Unicast routing issues: Due to various factors, in unicast, issues arise.Factors which affect routing processes are:

  • Error & shared channel.
  • Security issue.
  • Privacy issue.

Multicast routing issues: A process of transferring data where data could be transferred among single source node and multiple destination node is multicast. For video and audio conference in a network, multicast functionality is useful. The following factors affect multicast routing

  • Control overhead.
  • Efficient group management.
  • Quality of service.

Ad Hoc project are carried out to solve the challenges faced in Ad Hoc network and to improve its quality of service. In upcoming generation Ad Hoc networks plays an active part.

Clustering in Ad Hoc network:

Explaining an abstracted structure of a network is clustering multilevel hierarchy is got when clustering is applied. Grouping of similar objects is referred as clustering. The divided groups of nodes are cluster.The 3 types of nodes in clustering network is

  • Gateway nodes.
  • Normal nodes or cluster member.
  • Cluster head.

Cluster head: Cluster head is selected by each cluster by one specified node. In a specified network group cluster head acts as local controller. It controls all transmissions among a cluster. Packet deliver functionality and inter cluster traffic is handled. When contrasted to normal nodes more energy consumption is required.

Phases of cluster formation: Metric like, nodes mobility, bandwidth, residual energy and address of node based on these cluster head could be selected. Cluster size depends on transmission range of nodes in a single hop cluster. Communication is possible in cluster member with cluster head for data transmission to next hop. Two or more cluster head connection within a network in possible by gateway node. For Ad Hoc network, gateway node and cluster head act as backbone.

  • Assignment nodes of cluster.
  • Cluster head selection.

Clustering advantages:

  • Less overhead.
  • Makes topology more stable.
  • Multiple simpler topologies are created.
  • Avoids collision.
  • CH maintains route information.
Advantages of Ad hoc networks Projects
  • More flexible.
  • More economical.
  • It can be turn up and turn down in a very short time.
  • Ease of deployment.
  • It considered a robust network because of its non hierarchical distributed control and management mechanisms.
  • Low Scale Investment.
  • Better mobility.
  • High data rates.
  • Low cost & quick deployment.
  • High scalability.
  • Low cost per bit.