Networking is a process of connecting and communicating many computers. Open system interconnection (OSI) can be analyzed and explained through projects on networking. OSI is always interlinked with network layers. All the layers of network should work together to make a data move. Different types of transmission like node to node, host- host and process to process is possible by OSI.

Functions of OSI layers:


There are seven OSI layers they are

  • Physical layer.
  • Data link layer.
  • Network layer.
  • Transport layer.
  • Session layer.
  • Presentation layer.
  • Application layer.

Physical layer:

Physical layer specifies connector channel medium and interface requirements. Electronic circuits are used to communicate data. Simplex, half duplex and full duplex are transmission node of physical layer.

Data link layer:

Nodes to node transmission are possible when bits are acquired from data packets. Control flow and frame synchronization is managed by data link layer. Media access control (MAC) layer and logical link control (LLC) layer are the two kinds of data link layer.

Network layer:

Node to node communication is also possible in network layer. Its main focus is switching and routing of virtual circuits. Data’s are converted into packets for transmission.

Transport layer:

Host to host communication is done by transport layer. Data transmission among end systems is made possible through this layer. Verification of flow control and error recovery of end system is done through this layer.

Session layer:

Application connections are done by session layer. Conversion making, termination and dialogue exchange also done by session layer. Usually session function and coordination is executed by session layer.

Presentation layer:

The format of data transmission is found out by presentation layer. Data’s that are to be transmitted are compressed by it. It helps in changing data as application layer.

Application layer:

It gives support for end user to transfer and share files among users. It makes use of applications used by end user like java, c, word etc.

Protocols of OSI model:

  • Sap and Net Bios.
  • Simple mail Transfer protocol.
  • Point to point protocol.
  • Secure socket logic.
  • IP, Apple talk.
  • Bluetooth, IEEE 802.11 and IEEE 802.3.
  • TCP, UDP.

Future Advancement:

Projects on Networking aims to improvise the present communication model for the end users.