Cognitive Radio Projects for Research Scholars.
Cognitive radio networks make use of unused spectrum. Cognitive Radio Projects provides security for CR systems. This abundantly increases the usage of spectrum. Bandwidth of primary used can’t be shared in an efficient way ,certain services obtain spectrum from federal communication system. It monitors spectrum receiving signal when it is switched over to new network. Cognitive radio (CR) is a form of wireless communication in which a transceiver can intelligently detect which communication channels are in use and which are not, and instantly move into vacant channels while avoiding occupied ones. Cognitive radio projects are utilized to perform effective spectrum allocation process, CRN combined with WSN for resource-constrained multi-hop wireless sensor networks as same as spectrum utilization, routing in cognitive radio networks etc.
Types of Cognitive Radio Network.
Policy Radios: Radio policy – a group of ethics frame up this CR. It works on the basis of radio location. It doesn’t deal with learning or reasoning engine.
Procedural Cognitive Radios: Complicated coded algorithm is used to adjust operational parameter. PCR is more flexible as it takes different actions for different input.
Ontological Cognitive Radios: Due to its usage of learning and reasoning engine it is the most flexible radio. Radio knowledge representation language is used to describe user entities. It can sense frequency of radio environment to make wise decision.
Operation of Cognitive Radio Network Projects.
Spectrum Decision: A decision making process is involved in CRN. The availability of spectrum is decided by calculating the consumption of energy by each channel.
Collaborative and Cooperative Sensing: CR collaborates with other radios to share information. This is what called as collaborative and cooperative sensing.
Self- Coexistence: Dynamic mechanism is used to share spectrum. It is used to achieve sharing of spectrum with several base stations.
Operation for Cognitive Radio Network Projects follows algorithms or protocols are used: graph based routing approaches, link quality/stability based routing approaches, delay based routing approaches, probabilistic approaches, and throughput based routing approaches, matched filter, interference temperature, energy detection and feature detection.
For resource management CSMA, TDMA, FDMA concepts are used in Cognitive Radio Network Projects. Mac approaches like: on-demand negotiation, home channel, time division-based negotiation
Possible Layer Attacks in Cognitive Radio Network Projects.
Link Layer Attacks:
SSDF (Spectrum Sensing Data Falsification): False sensing information can be sent by the attackers which makes the decision engine to make errors. Byzantine attack is the other name of SSDF.
CCSD (Control Channel Saturation Denial Of Service Attack): Due to the working of many CR network simultaneously there is a possibility for the system to hang. This situation is well used by hackers to produce MAC frame, which slows the performance.
Selfish channel navigation (SCN): During transmission of data from one host to another the energy CRN can be lost. There might be selfish host due to its need to save energy may bring down the entire network.
Transport Layer Attack:
Lion attack: Transmission control protocol connection is interrupted by lion attack with PUE attack.
Physical Layer Attacks:
Primary User Emulation Attacks (PUEA): Certain secondary users who become rogue attack and obtain spectrum as primary users. There are types of PUE attacks namely
- Malicious PUE attacks.
- Self PUE attacks.
Object Function Attacks: Usage of energy, data rate, modulation of power, encryption type and frame size is based to get cognitive parameter which then is used to maximize the rate of data.
Jamming Attack: Jammers are used to communicate unwanted data by attackers.
How to Prevent Attacks in Cognitive Radio Network Projects.
- Adapting and structured architecture.
- Decision fashion techniques.
- Management of group key.
- Distance difference test.
- Jamming detection techniques.
- Distance radio test.
- Encryption will be used.
- Design of efficient routing protocol.